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Although the lyrical style is apparently classical, it is also pervaded by the characteristic dissatisfaction with the present of the romantics.

Leopardi, here, romanticizes the pure intentions of the Greeks, since he was actually romantic in his sentiments and classical in his imagination and intellect.

In the Epistolario a Carlo Pepoli , Leopardi attempts to prove to his friend the thesis reminiscent of Buddhism according to which, since life has no other aim but happiness and since happiness is unattainable, all of life is nothing but an interminable struggle.

But he who refuses to work is oppressed by the tedium of life and must seek distraction in useless pastimes. Moreover, those who dedicate themselves to poetry, if they have no fatherland, are tormented more than those who do by a lack of freedom because they fully appreciate the value of the idea of nationhood.

At this point, a disillusioned Leopardi considers abandoning poetry for philosophy, but without any hope of glory. He has resigned himself to the certainty of pain and of boredom to which mankind is condemned and he therefore believes it necessary to abandon the illusions and poetry in order to speculate on the laws and destiny of the universe.

In , he wrote the canto Alla sua donna "To his woman" , in which he expresses his ardent aspiration for a feminine ideal which, with love, might render life beautiful and desirable.

During his youth, he had dreamt in vain of encountering a woman who embodied such a feminine ideal: a platonic idea, perfect, untouchable, pure, incorporeal, evanescent, and illusory.

It is a hymn not to one of Leopardi's many "loves," but to the discovery that he had unexpectedly made—at that summit of his life from which he would later decline—that what he had been seeking in the lady he loved was "something" beyond her, that was made visible in her, that communicated itself through her, but was beyond her.

This beautiful hymn to Woman ends with this passionate invocation:. Between the years and , Leopardi set aside lyric poetry in order to compose his prose magnum opus, Operette morali "Small Moral Works" , which consists in its final form of a series of 24 innovative dialogues and fictional essays treating a variety of themes that had already become familiar to his work by then.

One of the most famous dialogue is: Dialogo della Natura e di un Islandese , in which the author expresses his main philosophical ideas.

After , Leopardi abandoned the myths and illustrious figures of the past, which he now considered to be transformed into meaningless symbols and turned to writing about suffering in a more "cosmic" sense.

In , Leopardi returned to lyric poetry with Il Risorgimento "Resurgence". The poem is essentially a history of the spiritual development of the poet from the day in which he came to believe that every pulse of life had died out in his soul to the moment in which the lyrical and the sentimental were reawakened in him.

A strange torpor had rendered him apathetic, indifferent to suffering, to love, to desire, and to hope. Life had seemed desolate to him until the ice began to melt and the soul, reawakening, finally felt the revivification of the ancient illusions.

Having reconquered the gift of sentiment, the poet accepts life as it is because it is revived by the feeling of suffering which torments his heart and, so long as he lives, he will not rebel against those who condemn him to live.

This recovered serenity consists in the contemplation of one's own conscience of one's own sentiments, even when desolation and despair envelop the soul.

Leopardi rejoices to have rediscovered in himself the capacity to be moved and to experience pain, after a long period of impassibility and boredom.

With Risorgimento , lyricism is reawakened in the poet, who composes canti, generally brief, in which a small spark or a scene is expanded, extending itself into an eternal vision of existence.

He reevokes images, memories and moments of past happiness. The young lady of the title—possibly the daughter of a servant in the Leopardi household—is the image of the hopes and illusions of the young poet, destined to succumb far too early in the struggle against reality, just as the youth of Silvia is destroyed by tuberculosis, the "chiuso morbo".

A Silvia is the expression of a profound and tragic love of life itself, which Leopardi, despite all the suffering, the psychological torments and the negative philosophizing, could not suppress in his spirit.

This poem demonstrates why Leopardi's so-called "nihilism" does not run deep enough to touch the well-spring of his poetry: his love of man, of nature, and of beauty.

However, the accusation Leopardi makes against Nature is very strong, as being responsible for the sweet dreams of youth and for the subsequent suffering, after "the appearance of truth" l'apparir del vero , v.

The canto Il passero solitario "The Lonely Sparrow" is of a classical perfection for the structure of the verses and for the sharpness of the images.

Leopardi contemplates the bounty of nature and the world which smiles at him invitingly, but the poet has become misanthropic and disconsolate with the declining of his health and youth and the deprivation of all joy.

He senses the feast which nature puts forth to him, but is unable to take part in it and foresees the remorse which will assail him in the years to come when he will regret the youthful life that he never lived.

In this sense, he is alone just like, or worse than, the sparrow, since the latter lives alone by instinct, while the poet is endowed with reason and free will.

In , at Recanati, where he was constrained to return, against his wishes, because of increasing infirmity and financial difficulties, the poet wrote Le Ricordanze "Memories" , perhaps the poem where autobiographical elements are the most evident.

It narrates the story of the painful joy of the man who feels his sentiments to be stirred by seeing again places full of childhood and adolescence memories.

These sentiments now confront a horrible and merciless reality and deep regret for lost youth. The ephemeral happiness is embodied in Nerina a character perhaps based on the same inspiration as Silvia, Teresa Fattorini.

Nerina and Silvia are both dreams, evanescent phantasms; life for Leopardi is an illusion, the only reality being death.

The woman, Silvia, Nerina, or "la sua donna" are always only the reflection of the poet himself, since life itself is, for him, an elusive and deceptive phantasm.

In , Leopardi wrote La quiete dopo la tempesta "The Calm After the Storm" , in which the light and reassuring verses at the beginning evolve into the dark desperation of the concluding strophe, where pleasure and joy are conceived of as only momentary cessations of suffering and the highest pleasure is provided only by death.

It also delegates with his dignities onto the crowd nor grieving himself on the sorrows he obsessed and afterwards, his prowess dominates. The same year's Il sabato del villaggio "Saturday in the village" , like La quiete dopo la tempesta , opens with the depiction of the calm and reassuring scene of the people of the village Recanati preparing for Sunday's rest and feast.

Later, just as in the other poem, it expands into deep, though brief and restrained, poetic-philosophical considerations on the emptiness of life: the joy and illusion of expectation must come to an unsatisfactory end in the Sunday feast; likewise, all the sweet dreams and expectations of youth will turn into bitter disillusion.

Around the end of or the first months of , Leopardi composed the Canto notturno di un pastore errante dell'Asia "Night-time chant of a wandering Asian sheep-herder".

The canto, which is divided into five strophes of equal length, takes the form of a dialogue between a sheep-herder and the moon. The canto begins with the words " Che fai tu Luna in ciel?

Throughout the entire poem, in fact, the moon remains silent, and the dialogue is transformed therefore into a long and urgent existential monologue of the sheep-herder, in desperate search of explanations to provide a sense to the pointlessness of existence.

The two characters are immersed in an indeterminate space and time, accentuating the universal and symbolic nature of their encounter: the sheep-herder represents the human species as a whole and his doubts are not contingent—that is, anchored to a here and now—but are rather characteristic of man at all times; the moon, on the other hand, represents Nature, the "beautiful and terrible" [25] force that fascinates and, at the same time, terrifies the poet.

The sheep-herder, a man of humble condition, directs his words to the moon in a polite but insistent tone, seething with melancholy. It is precisely the absence of response on the part of the celestial orb which provokes him to continue to investigate, ever more profoundly, into the role of the moon, and therefore into that of humanity, with respect to life and the world, defining ever more sharply the "arid truth" so dear to the poetry of Leopardi.

In the first strophe, in fact, the sheep-herder, even while defining the moon as silent, actually expects a response from it and discovers many analogies between his own condition and that of the moon: both of them arise in the morning, follow their always self-identical paths and finally stop to rest.

The life of the moon, as much as that of the sheep-herder, seems completely senseless. There appears, however, in the middle of this strophe, a very important distinction: the course of human life is finite and its passage, similar to that of a "vecchierel bianco" Petrarch, Canzoniere , XVI , terminates tragically in the "horrid abyss" of death.

In the third strophe, the sheep-herder turns again to the moon with renewed vigor and hope, believing that the orb, precisely because of this privileged extra-worldly condition, can provide him the answers to his most urgent questions: what is life?

What could possibly be its purpose since it is necessarily finite? What is the first cause of all being?

But the moon, as the sheep-herder learns quickly, cannot provide the answers to these questions even if it knew them, since such is nature: distant, incomprehensible, mute if not indifferent to the concerns of man.

The sheep-herder's search for sense and happiness continues all the way to the final two strophes. In the fourth, the sheep-herder turns to his flock, observing how the lack of self-awareness that each sheep has allows it to live out, in apparent tranquillity, its brief existence, without suffering or boredom.

But this idea is ultimately rejected by the sheep-herder himself in the final strophe, in which he admits that, probably, in whatever form life is born and manifests itself, whether moon, sheep or man, whatever it is capable of doing, life is equally bleak and tragic.

In this period, Leopardi's relations with his family are reduced to a minimum and he is constrained to maintain himself on his own financially. In , after sixteen months of "notte orribile" awful night , he accepted a generous offer from his Tuscan friends, which enabled him to leave Recanati.

In the last canti , philosophical investigation predominates, with the exception of Tramonto della Luna "Decline of the Moon" which is a decisive return to idyllic lyricism.

In , Leopardi wrote Il pensiero dominante "The Dominating Thought" , which exalts love as a living or vitalizing force in itself, even when it is unrequited.

The poem, however, features only the desire for love without the joy and the vitalizing spirit and, therefore, remaining thought, illusion.

Leopardi destroys everything, condemns everything, but wishes to save love from the universal miasma and protect it at least within the profundity of his own soul.

The more desolate the solitude which surrounds him, the more tightly he grasps onto love as the faith in his idealized, illusory, eternal woman "sua donna" who placates suffering, disillusion and bitterness.

The poet of universal suffering sings of a good which surpasses the ills of life and, for an instant, seems to become the singer of a possible happiness.

But the idea of death as the only hope for man returns, since the world offers only two beautiful things: love and death.

Il pensiero dominante represents the first ecstatic moment of love, which almost nullifies the awareness of human unhappiness.

It is worth the price of tolerating the suffering of a long life in order to experience the joy of such beauty. Il pensiero dominante and Il risorgimento are the only poems of joy written by Leopardi, though even in those two poems there always reappears, inextinguishable, the pessimism which sees in the object of joy a vain image created by the imagination.

The concept of the love-death duality is taken up again in the canto Amore e Morte "Love and Death".

It is a meditation on the torment and annihilation which accompanies love. Love and death, in fact, are twins: the one is the generator of all things beautiful and the other puts an end to all ills.

Love makes strong and cancels the fear of death and when it dominates the soul, it makes it desire death. Some, who are won over by passion, will die for it happily.

Others kill themselves because of the wounds of love. But happiness consists in dying in the drunkenness of passion. Of the two twins, Leopardi dares to invoke only death, which is no longer symbolized by the horrid Ade of Saffo, but by a young virgin who grants peace for eternity.

Death is the sister of love and is the great consoler who, along with her brother, is the best that the world can offer.

Consalvo obtains a kiss from the woman he has long loved unrequitedly only when, gravely injured, he is at the point of death. Consalvo is different from the other canti in that it has the form of a novella in verse or of a dramatic scene.

It is the fruit of the sentimental and languid literature which characterized much of the romanticism outside of Italy.

Written in , Aspasia emerges, like Consalvo , from the painful experience of desperate and unrequited love for Fanny Targioni Tozzetti.

Aspasia-Fanny is the only real woman represented in the poetry of Leopardi. Aspasia is the able manipulator whose perfect body hides a corrupt and prosaic soul.

She is the demonstration that beauty is dishonest. The poet, vainly searching for love, takes his revenge on destiny and the women who have rejected him, above all Targioni, whose memory continues to disturb the poet after more than a year away from her.

The memory of the woman loved in vain constantly returns, but the canto, inspired by disdain for the provocative and, simultaneously, distancing behavior of the woman also expresses resignation to one's fate and the pride of having been able to recover one's own independence.

Aspasia, in her limitedness as a woman cannot grasp the profundity of masculine thought. The last deceit, love, is dead too. He thought that love was one of the few things that makes life worth living but he changed his mind after his beloved Fanny's refusal.

She, moreover, was in love with Antonio Ranieri , Leopardi's best friend, who remained with the poet until the end.

His desire, his hope, his "sweet deceits" are ended. His heart has beaten all his life but it's time for it to stop beating and staying still. There is no place for hope anymore.

All he wants is dying, because death is the only good gift nature has given to human beings. In "Love and Death", love was still considered a good thing because when you are in love you have stronger feelings, you feel alive in an always new way.

Now he has become skeptical also about love, because if he can't have Fanny, nothing remains for him in life. He just wants to die, to make all the suffering end.

Death is a gift as it is the end of all human pain, which is inevitable because it's in the essence of men, it's in the cruel project of nature.

In the canto Sopra un bassorilievo antico sepolcrale "Over an Ancient Sepulchre Bas-relief" , a young woman has died and is represented in the act of saying goodbye to her loved ones.

The poet weighs the pros and cons of death, remaining in doubt about whether the young woman's destiny is good or bad.

Leopardi, even while being highly conscious of the indifference of nature, never ceased entirely to love it. In these verses, the poet poses challenging and pointed questions to nature, enumerating the ills and sufferings which, because of death, are inflicted on humanity.

Under the influence of love, the poet had apparently found happiness at least in death Il pensiero dominante , Amore e morte.

Now, instead, even this last illusion has fallen and he sees nothing but unhappiness everywhere. Sopra il ritratto di una bella donna scolpito nel monumento sepolcrale della medesima "On the portrait of a beautiful woman sculpted in her sepulchral monument" is basically an extension of the above.

The poet, drawing his inspiration from a funerary sculpture, evokes the image of a beautiful woman and compares her breathtaking beauty to the heart-rendingly sad image that she has become; one that is no more than mud, dust and skeleton.

As well as being centred on the transience of beauty and of human things, the poem points to the specular antinomy between human ideals and natural truth.

Leopardi does not deny—if anything, he emphasizes—the beauty of the human species in general, and by the end of the poem extends his point to all possible forms of beauty, intellectual as well as aesthetic.

However, this universal beauty remains unattainable to a human nature that is nothing but "polvere e ombra" "dust and shadow" , and that may touch—but never possess—the ideals that it perceives, remaining rooted to the natural world in which it was born, as well as to its demands.

In , while staying near Torre del Greco in a villa on the hillside of Vesuvius , Leopardi wrote his moral testament as a poet, La Ginestra "The Broom " , also known as Il Fiore del Deserto "The flower of the desert".

The poem consists of verses and uses free strophes of hendecasyllables and septuplets as its meter. It is the longest of all the Canti and has an unusual beginning.

In fact, among all the Leopardian canti only this one begins with a scene of desolation, to be followed by an alternation between the enchantment of the panorama and of the starry night sky.

On the literary level, it is the maximum realization of that anti-idyllic " new poetic " with which Leopardi had already experimented from the s.

Leopardi, after having described the nothingness of the world and of man with respect to the universe; after having lamented the precariousness of the human condition threatened by the capriciousness of nature, not as exceptional evils but as continuous and constant; and after having satirized the arrogance and the credulity of man, who propounds ideas of progress and hopes, even while knowing he is mortal, to render himself eternal, concludes with the observation that reciprocal solidarity is the only defence against the common enemy which is nature see Operette morali , "Dialogo di Plotino e Porfirio".

In this canto, in which Leopardi expresses his vast thought about mankind, history, and nature, autobiographical elements can be found: both direct the places described are those who surround the poet in his late years and indirect, in the image of a man who is poor, weak, but courageous enough to be aware of his real condition.

The humble plant of ginestra , living in desolate places without surrendering to the force of Nature, resembles this ideal man, who rejects any illusions about himself and does not invoke from Heaven or Nature an impossible help.

Vesuvius, the great mountain which brings destruction, dominates the entire poem. The only attainable truth is death, toward which man must inexorably advance, abandoning every illusion and becoming conscious of his own miserable condition.

Such awareness will placate the mutual hatreds. It is a vast poem, symphonically constructed with brilliant alternations of tone, from the grandiose and tragic painting of the volcano threatening destruction and of extensions of infertile lava, to the sharp ideological argumentation, to the cosmic sparks which project the nothingness of the earth and of man in the immensity of the universe, to the vision of the infinite passage of centuries of human history on which the immutable threat of nature has always weighed, to the gentle notes dedicated to the "flower in the desert", in which are compressed complex symbolic meanings: pity toward the sufferings of man and the dignity which should be characteristic of man when confronted with the invincible force of a nature which crushes him.

An essential change occurs with the Ginestra , which closes the poetic career of Leopardi along with Il tramonto della Luna , which takes up the old themes of the fall of youthful illusions.

The poem reiterates and reaffirms the sharp anti-optimistic and anti-religious polemic, but in a new and democratic register. Here, Leopardi no longer denies the possibility of civic progress: he seeks to construct an idea of progress founded precisely on his pessimism.

Il tramonto della Luna "The Waning of the Moon" , the last canto, was composed by Leopardi in Naples shortly before his death.

The moon wanes, leaving nature in total darkness, just as youth passes away leaving life dark and derelict.

The poet seems to presage the imminence of his own death. In , Ranieri published the definitive edition of the Canti according to the will of the author.

The work, written in , was intended to be satirical he first believes that man is unhappy and miserable, but now progress has made him reconsider his position , but the thought of the inevitable destruction to which nature condemns everything leads him to express bitter conclusions in spite of himself.

Regarding this work, the Marquis Capponi wrote in a letter to Leopardi that he shared, at least in part, many of his ideas and thanked him for the "noble verses".

However, in a letter addressed to Viesseux, he expressed himself in rather different terms: "Now it behoves that I write [back] to that damned hunchback who has put it into his head to mock me.

The satiric tone adopted by Leopardi through much of the Operette morali is also evinced in some of his late poetic texts, such as the Palinodia and I nuovi credenti.

But the clearest demonstration of his mastery of this art form is probably the Paralipomeni della Batracomiomachia , a brief comic-heroic poem of eight stanzas of eight lines each.

Leopardi wrote it between and , beginning it during his last stay in Florence and finishing it in Naples. The publication took place, posthumously, in Paris in , provoking a universal reaction of outrage and condemnation, as much for the cutting and anti-heroic representation of the events of the Risorgimento as for the numerous materialistic philosophical digressions.

Batracomiomachia was also the title of a pseudo-Homeric poem which was actually written in the 4th or 5th century BC and translated by Leopardi between and The title therefore alludes to an integration of the original work, which is taken up again where it left off and the narrative progresses.

The subject is a fable regarding the conflict between the mice that inhabit the nation of Topaia and the invading crabs.

But behind the plot, there is hidden a robust sarcastic and polemical motivation. The animals and their doings have an allegorical value. In the crabs, portrayed unsympathetically and with monstrous characteristics, are to be recognized the Austrians; in the mice, sometimes generous but mostly ingenuous and cowardly, the liberal Italians.

The poem represents the historical events that took place between and the climate of the Restoration desired by the Holy Alliance and the fruitless attempts at insurrection of — Even the revolutionary movements of are included by Leopardi, who was able to follow them by way of the moderate Tuscan circles which he frequented and who perhaps provided him with the inspiration for the work.

The adoption of the poetic genre required the abandonment of the lyric style and the adoption of a narrative pace marked by a constant critical-satirical tension toward the ideological and philosophical beliefs of contemporary culture: Christian spiritualism, faith in progress, and anthropocentrism.

Even the slogans of the political struggle of the liberals are derided, both in their expression of expectation of foreign intervention and in their faith in the model of a constitutional monarchy.

Of the Italian Risorgimento, he delineates the fundamental limits here with an extraordinary tempestivity: the tendency to compromise with ancient interests and constituted powers, the vanity, the opportunism, the ideological ingenuousness, the lack of an opportune pragmatic awareness.

The style generally renounces the expressive concentration of the lyric texts and extends itself in a wide and relaxed discursive pace, with alterations between adventurous moments and ferociously caricatural and polemical points, of description and philosophical digressions.

In March , shortly before his death, Leopardi announced that he would gather into one volume some "thoughts" "pensieri" on man and society.

Such a collection was supposed to be part of a French edition of the complete works of Leopardi. A few months later on 14 June the poet died, leaving the work incomplete and the fragments were published by his friend Ranieri, who also provided the title.

The bulk of the contents of Pensieri are derived from the Zibaldone. The tone is sharply argumentative with respect to humanity, which Leopardi judges to be malevolent and it almost seems as if the poet wants to take his final revenge on the world.

The Zibaldone di pensieri see also Commonplace book Zibaldone is a collection of personal impressions, aphorisms, profound philosophical observations, philological analyses, literary criticism and various types of notes which was published posthumously in seven volumes in with the original title of Pensieri di varia filosofia e di bella letteratura Miscellaneous Thoughts on Philosophy and Literature.

It was only in , after the republication of the original text enriched with notes and indices by the literary critic Francesco Flora, that the work definitively took on the name by which it is known today.

In the Zibaldone , Leopardi compares the innocent and happy state of nature with the condition of modern man, corrupted by an excessively developed faculty of reason which, rejecting the necessary illusions of myth and religion in favor of a dark reality of annihilation and emptiness, can only generate unhappiness.

The Zibaldone contains the poetic and existential itinerary of Leopardi himself; it is a miscellanea of philosophical annotations, schemes, entire compositions, moral reflections, judgements, small idylls, erudite discussions and impressions.

Leopardi, even while remaining outside of the circles of philosophical debate of his century, was able to elaborate an extremely innovative and provocative vision of the world.

It is not much of a stretch to define Leopardi as the father of what would eventually come to be called nihilism. Schopenhauer , in mentioning the great minds of all ages who opposed optimism and expressed their knowledge of the world's misery, wrote:.

But no one has treated this subject so thoroughly and exhaustively as Leopardi in our own day. Enjoy Luna Rossa at home or at work!

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He has come to the realization, too late to change things, that everything was done in vain, that everything has been pointless, that he will even die dishonoured and disgraced for his well-intentioned actions.

His meditations bring him to the conclusion that morality is meaningless; Jove rewards only the selfish and plays arbitrary games with hapless mankind.

Man is more unhappy than the rest of the animal kingdom because the latter do not know that they are unhappy and therefore do not meditate on the question of suicide and, even if they could, nothing would prevent them from carrying out the act without hesitation.

Sappho is also a tragic figure. In fact, she is a great and generous spirit, an exceptional mind and a sublime character trapped in a miserable body.

Nor can the greatness of her genius help to release her from this horror. In Sappho, Leopardi sees himself retarded, but in reality the poet of Lesbos was neither deformed nor unhappy as she is depicted by Leopardi, who based his depiction on a false traditional belief.

Sappho knew, tasted, and sang of beauty and love more than was possible for Leopardi. But the resignation to unhappiness, to pain and to solitude, and the renunciation of the joys of life, sounds in the verses of Leopardi like the sincere sigh of a feminine soul.

The canto begins as a sweet apostrophe to the placid nights, once dear to the serene poet, but the words turn rapidly to a violent evocation of nature in tempest which echoes her inner turmoil.

The anguishing and accusative questions which Leopardi poses to a destiny which has denied beauty to the miserable Sappho are cut short by the thought of death.

After having wished to the man she has loved in vain that little bit of happiness which is possible to attain on this earth, Sappho concludes by affirming that of all the hopes for joy, of all the illusions, there remains to await her only Tartarus.

The first laments the fall of the great illusions "gli ameni inganni" and the imaginary mythological worlds of the past, which embellished and enriched the fantasy of man.

The second decries the loss of happiness that has resulted. In Alla primavera , Leopardi praises the ancient times when the nymphs populated the fields, the woods, the springs, the flowers and the trees.

Although the lyrical style is apparently classical, it is also pervaded by the characteristic dissatisfaction with the present of the romantics. Leopardi, here, romanticizes the pure intentions of the Greeks, since he was actually romantic in his sentiments and classical in his imagination and intellect.

In the Epistolario a Carlo Pepoli , Leopardi attempts to prove to his friend the thesis reminiscent of Buddhism according to which, since life has no other aim but happiness and since happiness is unattainable, all of life is nothing but an interminable struggle.

But he who refuses to work is oppressed by the tedium of life and must seek distraction in useless pastimes. Moreover, those who dedicate themselves to poetry, if they have no fatherland, are tormented more than those who do by a lack of freedom because they fully appreciate the value of the idea of nationhood.

At this point, a disillusioned Leopardi considers abandoning poetry for philosophy, but without any hope of glory. He has resigned himself to the certainty of pain and of boredom to which mankind is condemned and he therefore believes it necessary to abandon the illusions and poetry in order to speculate on the laws and destiny of the universe.

In , he wrote the canto Alla sua donna "To his woman" , in which he expresses his ardent aspiration for a feminine ideal which, with love, might render life beautiful and desirable.

During his youth, he had dreamt in vain of encountering a woman who embodied such a feminine ideal: a platonic idea, perfect, untouchable, pure, incorporeal, evanescent, and illusory.

It is a hymn not to one of Leopardi's many "loves," but to the discovery that he had unexpectedly made—at that summit of his life from which he would later decline—that what he had been seeking in the lady he loved was "something" beyond her, that was made visible in her, that communicated itself through her, but was beyond her.

This beautiful hymn to Woman ends with this passionate invocation:. Between the years and , Leopardi set aside lyric poetry in order to compose his prose magnum opus, Operette morali "Small Moral Works" , which consists in its final form of a series of 24 innovative dialogues and fictional essays treating a variety of themes that had already become familiar to his work by then.

One of the most famous dialogue is: Dialogo della Natura e di un Islandese , in which the author expresses his main philosophical ideas.

After , Leopardi abandoned the myths and illustrious figures of the past, which he now considered to be transformed into meaningless symbols and turned to writing about suffering in a more "cosmic" sense.

In , Leopardi returned to lyric poetry with Il Risorgimento "Resurgence". The poem is essentially a history of the spiritual development of the poet from the day in which he came to believe that every pulse of life had died out in his soul to the moment in which the lyrical and the sentimental were reawakened in him.

A strange torpor had rendered him apathetic, indifferent to suffering, to love, to desire, and to hope. Life had seemed desolate to him until the ice began to melt and the soul, reawakening, finally felt the revivification of the ancient illusions.

Having reconquered the gift of sentiment, the poet accepts life as it is because it is revived by the feeling of suffering which torments his heart and, so long as he lives, he will not rebel against those who condemn him to live.

This recovered serenity consists in the contemplation of one's own conscience of one's own sentiments, even when desolation and despair envelop the soul.

Leopardi rejoices to have rediscovered in himself the capacity to be moved and to experience pain, after a long period of impassibility and boredom.

With Risorgimento , lyricism is reawakened in the poet, who composes canti, generally brief, in which a small spark or a scene is expanded, extending itself into an eternal vision of existence.

He reevokes images, memories and moments of past happiness. The young lady of the title—possibly the daughter of a servant in the Leopardi household—is the image of the hopes and illusions of the young poet, destined to succumb far too early in the struggle against reality, just as the youth of Silvia is destroyed by tuberculosis, the "chiuso morbo".

A Silvia is the expression of a profound and tragic love of life itself, which Leopardi, despite all the suffering, the psychological torments and the negative philosophizing, could not suppress in his spirit.

This poem demonstrates why Leopardi's so-called "nihilism" does not run deep enough to touch the well-spring of his poetry: his love of man, of nature, and of beauty.

However, the accusation Leopardi makes against Nature is very strong, as being responsible for the sweet dreams of youth and for the subsequent suffering, after "the appearance of truth" l'apparir del vero , v.

The canto Il passero solitario "The Lonely Sparrow" is of a classical perfection for the structure of the verses and for the sharpness of the images.

Leopardi contemplates the bounty of nature and the world which smiles at him invitingly, but the poet has become misanthropic and disconsolate with the declining of his health and youth and the deprivation of all joy.

He senses the feast which nature puts forth to him, but is unable to take part in it and foresees the remorse which will assail him in the years to come when he will regret the youthful life that he never lived.

In this sense, he is alone just like, or worse than, the sparrow, since the latter lives alone by instinct, while the poet is endowed with reason and free will.

In , at Recanati, where he was constrained to return, against his wishes, because of increasing infirmity and financial difficulties, the poet wrote Le Ricordanze "Memories" , perhaps the poem where autobiographical elements are the most evident.

It narrates the story of the painful joy of the man who feels his sentiments to be stirred by seeing again places full of childhood and adolescence memories.

These sentiments now confront a horrible and merciless reality and deep regret for lost youth. The ephemeral happiness is embodied in Nerina a character perhaps based on the same inspiration as Silvia, Teresa Fattorini.

Nerina and Silvia are both dreams, evanescent phantasms; life for Leopardi is an illusion, the only reality being death. The woman, Silvia, Nerina, or "la sua donna" are always only the reflection of the poet himself, since life itself is, for him, an elusive and deceptive phantasm.

In , Leopardi wrote La quiete dopo la tempesta "The Calm After the Storm" , in which the light and reassuring verses at the beginning evolve into the dark desperation of the concluding strophe, where pleasure and joy are conceived of as only momentary cessations of suffering and the highest pleasure is provided only by death.

It also delegates with his dignities onto the crowd nor grieving himself on the sorrows he obsessed and afterwards, his prowess dominates. The same year's Il sabato del villaggio "Saturday in the village" , like La quiete dopo la tempesta , opens with the depiction of the calm and reassuring scene of the people of the village Recanati preparing for Sunday's rest and feast.

Later, just as in the other poem, it expands into deep, though brief and restrained, poetic-philosophical considerations on the emptiness of life: the joy and illusion of expectation must come to an unsatisfactory end in the Sunday feast; likewise, all the sweet dreams and expectations of youth will turn into bitter disillusion.

Around the end of or the first months of , Leopardi composed the Canto notturno di un pastore errante dell'Asia "Night-time chant of a wandering Asian sheep-herder".

The canto, which is divided into five strophes of equal length, takes the form of a dialogue between a sheep-herder and the moon.

The canto begins with the words " Che fai tu Luna in ciel? Throughout the entire poem, in fact, the moon remains silent, and the dialogue is transformed therefore into a long and urgent existential monologue of the sheep-herder, in desperate search of explanations to provide a sense to the pointlessness of existence.

The two characters are immersed in an indeterminate space and time, accentuating the universal and symbolic nature of their encounter: the sheep-herder represents the human species as a whole and his doubts are not contingent—that is, anchored to a here and now—but are rather characteristic of man at all times; the moon, on the other hand, represents Nature, the "beautiful and terrible" [25] force that fascinates and, at the same time, terrifies the poet.

The sheep-herder, a man of humble condition, directs his words to the moon in a polite but insistent tone, seething with melancholy. It is precisely the absence of response on the part of the celestial orb which provokes him to continue to investigate, ever more profoundly, into the role of the moon, and therefore into that of humanity, with respect to life and the world, defining ever more sharply the "arid truth" so dear to the poetry of Leopardi.

In the first strophe, in fact, the sheep-herder, even while defining the moon as silent, actually expects a response from it and discovers many analogies between his own condition and that of the moon: both of them arise in the morning, follow their always self-identical paths and finally stop to rest.

The life of the moon, as much as that of the sheep-herder, seems completely senseless. There appears, however, in the middle of this strophe, a very important distinction: the course of human life is finite and its passage, similar to that of a "vecchierel bianco" Petrarch, Canzoniere , XVI , terminates tragically in the "horrid abyss" of death.

In the third strophe, the sheep-herder turns again to the moon with renewed vigor and hope, believing that the orb, precisely because of this privileged extra-worldly condition, can provide him the answers to his most urgent questions: what is life?

What could possibly be its purpose since it is necessarily finite? What is the first cause of all being? But the moon, as the sheep-herder learns quickly, cannot provide the answers to these questions even if it knew them, since such is nature: distant, incomprehensible, mute if not indifferent to the concerns of man.

The sheep-herder's search for sense and happiness continues all the way to the final two strophes. In the fourth, the sheep-herder turns to his flock, observing how the lack of self-awareness that each sheep has allows it to live out, in apparent tranquillity, its brief existence, without suffering or boredom.

But this idea is ultimately rejected by the sheep-herder himself in the final strophe, in which he admits that, probably, in whatever form life is born and manifests itself, whether moon, sheep or man, whatever it is capable of doing, life is equally bleak and tragic.

In this period, Leopardi's relations with his family are reduced to a minimum and he is constrained to maintain himself on his own financially.

In , after sixteen months of "notte orribile" awful night , he accepted a generous offer from his Tuscan friends, which enabled him to leave Recanati.

In the last canti , philosophical investigation predominates, with the exception of Tramonto della Luna "Decline of the Moon" which is a decisive return to idyllic lyricism.

In , Leopardi wrote Il pensiero dominante "The Dominating Thought" , which exalts love as a living or vitalizing force in itself, even when it is unrequited.

The poem, however, features only the desire for love without the joy and the vitalizing spirit and, therefore, remaining thought, illusion.

Leopardi destroys everything, condemns everything, but wishes to save love from the universal miasma and protect it at least within the profundity of his own soul.

The more desolate the solitude which surrounds him, the more tightly he grasps onto love as the faith in his idealized, illusory, eternal woman "sua donna" who placates suffering, disillusion and bitterness.

The poet of universal suffering sings of a good which surpasses the ills of life and, for an instant, seems to become the singer of a possible happiness.

But the idea of death as the only hope for man returns, since the world offers only two beautiful things: love and death. Il pensiero dominante represents the first ecstatic moment of love, which almost nullifies the awareness of human unhappiness.

It is worth the price of tolerating the suffering of a long life in order to experience the joy of such beauty. Il pensiero dominante and Il risorgimento are the only poems of joy written by Leopardi, though even in those two poems there always reappears, inextinguishable, the pessimism which sees in the object of joy a vain image created by the imagination.

The concept of the love-death duality is taken up again in the canto Amore e Morte "Love and Death". It is a meditation on the torment and annihilation which accompanies love.

Love and death, in fact, are twins: the one is the generator of all things beautiful and the other puts an end to all ills.

Love makes strong and cancels the fear of death and when it dominates the soul, it makes it desire death.

Some, who are won over by passion, will die for it happily. Others kill themselves because of the wounds of love. But happiness consists in dying in the drunkenness of passion.

Of the two twins, Leopardi dares to invoke only death, which is no longer symbolized by the horrid Ade of Saffo, but by a young virgin who grants peace for eternity.

Death is the sister of love and is the great consoler who, along with her brother, is the best that the world can offer. Consalvo obtains a kiss from the woman he has long loved unrequitedly only when, gravely injured, he is at the point of death.

Consalvo is different from the other canti in that it has the form of a novella in verse or of a dramatic scene.

It is the fruit of the sentimental and languid literature which characterized much of the romanticism outside of Italy. Written in , Aspasia emerges, like Consalvo , from the painful experience of desperate and unrequited love for Fanny Targioni Tozzetti.

Aspasia-Fanny is the only real woman represented in the poetry of Leopardi. Aspasia is the able manipulator whose perfect body hides a corrupt and prosaic soul.

She is the demonstration that beauty is dishonest. The poet, vainly searching for love, takes his revenge on destiny and the women who have rejected him, above all Targioni, whose memory continues to disturb the poet after more than a year away from her.

The memory of the woman loved in vain constantly returns, but the canto, inspired by disdain for the provocative and, simultaneously, distancing behavior of the woman also expresses resignation to one's fate and the pride of having been able to recover one's own independence.

Aspasia, in her limitedness as a woman cannot grasp the profundity of masculine thought. The last deceit, love, is dead too. He thought that love was one of the few things that makes life worth living but he changed his mind after his beloved Fanny's refusal.

She, moreover, was in love with Antonio Ranieri , Leopardi's best friend, who remained with the poet until the end. His desire, his hope, his "sweet deceits" are ended.

His heart has beaten all his life but it's time for it to stop beating and staying still. There is no place for hope anymore.

All he wants is dying, because death is the only good gift nature has given to human beings. In "Love and Death", love was still considered a good thing because when you are in love you have stronger feelings, you feel alive in an always new way.

Now he has become skeptical also about love, because if he can't have Fanny, nothing remains for him in life. He just wants to die, to make all the suffering end.

Death is a gift as it is the end of all human pain, which is inevitable because it's in the essence of men, it's in the cruel project of nature.

In the canto Sopra un bassorilievo antico sepolcrale "Over an Ancient Sepulchre Bas-relief" , a young woman has died and is represented in the act of saying goodbye to her loved ones.

The poet weighs the pros and cons of death, remaining in doubt about whether the young woman's destiny is good or bad. Leopardi, even while being highly conscious of the indifference of nature, never ceased entirely to love it.

In these verses, the poet poses challenging and pointed questions to nature, enumerating the ills and sufferings which, because of death, are inflicted on humanity.

Under the influence of love, the poet had apparently found happiness at least in death Il pensiero dominante , Amore e morte.

Now, instead, even this last illusion has fallen and he sees nothing but unhappiness everywhere. Sopra il ritratto di una bella donna scolpito nel monumento sepolcrale della medesima "On the portrait of a beautiful woman sculpted in her sepulchral monument" is basically an extension of the above.

The poet, drawing his inspiration from a funerary sculpture, evokes the image of a beautiful woman and compares her breathtaking beauty to the heart-rendingly sad image that she has become; one that is no more than mud, dust and skeleton.

As well as being centred on the transience of beauty and of human things, the poem points to the specular antinomy between human ideals and natural truth.

Leopardi does not deny—if anything, he emphasizes—the beauty of the human species in general, and by the end of the poem extends his point to all possible forms of beauty, intellectual as well as aesthetic.

However, this universal beauty remains unattainable to a human nature that is nothing but "polvere e ombra" "dust and shadow" , and that may touch—but never possess—the ideals that it perceives, remaining rooted to the natural world in which it was born, as well as to its demands.

In , while staying near Torre del Greco in a villa on the hillside of Vesuvius , Leopardi wrote his moral testament as a poet, La Ginestra "The Broom " , also known as Il Fiore del Deserto "The flower of the desert".

The poem consists of verses and uses free strophes of hendecasyllables and septuplets as its meter. It is the longest of all the Canti and has an unusual beginning.

In fact, among all the Leopardian canti only this one begins with a scene of desolation, to be followed by an alternation between the enchantment of the panorama and of the starry night sky.

On the literary level, it is the maximum realization of that anti-idyllic " new poetic " with which Leopardi had already experimented from the s.

Leopardi, after having described the nothingness of the world and of man with respect to the universe; after having lamented the precariousness of the human condition threatened by the capriciousness of nature, not as exceptional evils but as continuous and constant; and after having satirized the arrogance and the credulity of man, who propounds ideas of progress and hopes, even while knowing he is mortal, to render himself eternal, concludes with the observation that reciprocal solidarity is the only defence against the common enemy which is nature see Operette morali , "Dialogo di Plotino e Porfirio".

In this canto, in which Leopardi expresses his vast thought about mankind, history, and nature, autobiographical elements can be found: both direct the places described are those who surround the poet in his late years and indirect, in the image of a man who is poor, weak, but courageous enough to be aware of his real condition.

The humble plant of ginestra , living in desolate places without surrendering to the force of Nature, resembles this ideal man, who rejects any illusions about himself and does not invoke from Heaven or Nature an impossible help.

Vesuvius, the great mountain which brings destruction, dominates the entire poem. The only attainable truth is death, toward which man must inexorably advance, abandoning every illusion and becoming conscious of his own miserable condition.

Such awareness will placate the mutual hatreds. It is a vast poem, symphonically constructed with brilliant alternations of tone, from the grandiose and tragic painting of the volcano threatening destruction and of extensions of infertile lava, to the sharp ideological argumentation, to the cosmic sparks which project the nothingness of the earth and of man in the immensity of the universe, to the vision of the infinite passage of centuries of human history on which the immutable threat of nature has always weighed, to the gentle notes dedicated to the "flower in the desert", in which are compressed complex symbolic meanings: pity toward the sufferings of man and the dignity which should be characteristic of man when confronted with the invincible force of a nature which crushes him.

An essential change occurs with the Ginestra , which closes the poetic career of Leopardi along with Il tramonto della Luna , which takes up the old themes of the fall of youthful illusions.

The poem reiterates and reaffirms the sharp anti-optimistic and anti-religious polemic, but in a new and democratic register. Here, Leopardi no longer denies the possibility of civic progress: he seeks to construct an idea of progress founded precisely on his pessimism.

Il tramonto della Luna "The Waning of the Moon" , the last canto, was composed by Leopardi in Naples shortly before his death. The moon wanes, leaving nature in total darkness, just as youth passes away leaving life dark and derelict.

The poet seems to presage the imminence of his own death. In , Ranieri published the definitive edition of the Canti according to the will of the author.

The work, written in , was intended to be satirical he first believes that man is unhappy and miserable, but now progress has made him reconsider his position , but the thought of the inevitable destruction to which nature condemns everything leads him to express bitter conclusions in spite of himself.

Regarding this work, the Marquis Capponi wrote in a letter to Leopardi that he shared, at least in part, many of his ideas and thanked him for the "noble verses".

However, in a letter addressed to Viesseux, he expressed himself in rather different terms: "Now it behoves that I write [back] to that damned hunchback who has put it into his head to mock me.

The satiric tone adopted by Leopardi through much of the Operette morali is also evinced in some of his late poetic texts, such as the Palinodia and I nuovi credenti.

But the clearest demonstration of his mastery of this art form is probably the Paralipomeni della Batracomiomachia , a brief comic-heroic poem of eight stanzas of eight lines each.

Leopardi wrote it between and , beginning it during his last stay in Florence and finishing it in Naples. The publication took place, posthumously, in Paris in , provoking a universal reaction of outrage and condemnation, as much for the cutting and anti-heroic representation of the events of the Risorgimento as for the numerous materialistic philosophical digressions.

Batracomiomachia was also the title of a pseudo-Homeric poem which was actually written in the 4th or 5th century BC and translated by Leopardi between and The title therefore alludes to an integration of the original work, which is taken up again where it left off and the narrative progresses.

The subject is a fable regarding the conflict between the mice that inhabit the nation of Topaia and the invading crabs.

But behind the plot, there is hidden a robust sarcastic and polemical motivation. The animals and their doings have an allegorical value.

In the crabs, portrayed unsympathetically and with monstrous characteristics, are to be recognized the Austrians; in the mice, sometimes generous but mostly ingenuous and cowardly, the liberal Italians.

The poem represents the historical events that took place between and the climate of the Restoration desired by the Holy Alliance and the fruitless attempts at insurrection of — Even the revolutionary movements of are included by Leopardi, who was able to follow them by way of the moderate Tuscan circles which he frequented and who perhaps provided him with the inspiration for the work.

The adoption of the poetic genre required the abandonment of the lyric style and the adoption of a narrative pace marked by a constant critical-satirical tension toward the ideological and philosophical beliefs of contemporary culture: Christian spiritualism, faith in progress, and anthropocentrism.

Even the slogans of the political struggle of the liberals are derided, both in their expression of expectation of foreign intervention and in their faith in the model of a constitutional monarchy.

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